infeksi nosokomial ebook





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jual ebook infeksi nosokomial Nosocomial infection rate was significantly higher in many developing countries, especially in invasive procedures (eg, surgical procedures and cesarean section). In developing countries, nosocomial infection rates are very high due to lack of supervision, poor infection prevention practices, and limited resources as well as the density of the patient in the hospital.

The key factor is the increase of nosocomial infections, especially:

  • • Increased standards for operating the blood transfusion service
  • • increase the use of invasive medical devices (eg, mechanical ventilators, urinary catheters and infusion) without proper training or support laboratory
  • • Use of contaminated intravenous fluids.
  • • The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are too often

Study of Simonsen et al (1999) concluded that over 50% of injections in developing countries are not safe (needles, syringes re-used or both) and the number of unnecessary injections (eg, regular injections of vitamin B-12 or antibiotics).

Three main approaches that can be used are :

  1. Cross contamination prevention and control various sources of nosocomial pathogens. As we know, endotracheal tube, dialysis systems, respiratory equipment and catheters can be transmitted from patient to patient or from health provider to patient.
  2. Elimination of Endogenous nosocomial pathogens to reduce oropharyngeal, intestinal and skin colonization.
  3. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in post operative and high risk patients. Specific immuno prophylaxis has been recommended in high risk patient (i.e heat burn patient and ICU patient) against Pseudomonas and Klebsiella infections.
  • Alvarado CJ. 2000. The Science of Hand Hygiene: A Self-Study Monograph. University of Wisconsin Medical School and Sci-Health Communications. March.
  • Emori TG and RP Gaynes. 1993. An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the clinical laboratory. Clin Microbiol Rev 6(4): 428–442.
  • Gisselquist D et al 2002. HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa not explained by sexual or vertical transmission. Int J STD AIDS 13(10): 657–666.
  • Mayon-White RT et al. 1988. An international survey of the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 11(Suppl A): 43–48.
  • Ponce-de-Leon S. 1991. The needs of developing countries and the resources required. J Hosp Infect 18 (Suppl A): 376–381.
  • Simonsen L et al. 1999. Unsafe injections in the developing world and transmission of bloodborne pathogens: A review. Bull World Health Organ 77(10): 789–800.

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